What to do about LGBTQ individuals connected with the Orthodox Church (or who want to be connected to the Orthodox Church) is the biggest doctrinal issue we are dealing with today. The pat answers we have are inadequate to the questions we have because, while the mechanics of same-sex acts have not changed over the centuries (or so I imagine), the social conditions under which same-sex desires and relationships are lived out are drastically different. In Greek times, same-sex acts were tantamount to child abuse. In Roman times, it was about the exercise of power. Degrees of condemnation varied in Christian Europe, ranging from scolding youthful mischief to prescribing penance for marital infidelity or fornication. It was not until the Victorian era that “homosexuality” came to be considered a kind of diagnosable and thus treatable condition. Continue reading “How Not to Talk about Homosexuality in the Orthodox Church”
It is telling that the 6-7 essays (out of 150 total) Public Orthodoxy has posted about marriage and sexuality have an outsized readership.
— George Demacopoulos (@GDemacopoulos) September 2, 2017
I wanted to ask my friend if she happened to see any Orthodox clergy standing with her, but I think I already know the answer.
A friend of mine recently moved to Charlottesville. She was at the protests over the weekend, or I guess you would say she was a counter-protester. (I am hesitant to say “counter,” though, because it implies that the white nationalists had anything worth protesting.) A photo of her came across my timeline, posted by Jill Harms Photography. When Brandy (my friend) commented on this photo, she explained that they had just faced down a group of club-wielding white nationalists who were trying to access Emancipation Park, and they were steeling themselves for a second confrontation.
Today is the feast of Transfiguration in the Orthodox Church. Jesus hiked up Mt. Tabor with Peter, James, and John, and was transfigured before them so that he shone with the uncreated light of the Most Holy Trinity. Transfiguration comes near harvest time, and so a tradition has been established to bless grapes and sometimes other fruits and vegetables. There is a deep symbolism here. Grapes take their flavor from their environment—the soil and the rains where they are grown. The ripened grape is a transfiguration of the earth. The grape itself is transfigured into the Eucharist, when fruit of the vine becomes the blood of our Savior.
Yet much of this symbolism is lost in our society. The grapes my priest blessed this morning came from a store. There is a connection to the people when grapes are brought in from local growers. “This is ours.” In a way, “This is us.” “We offer the fruits of our labors to God.” But what is the fruit of our labor when we buy a bag of grapes from the grocery? Self checkout?
We no longer live in an agrarian society. While traditions should not be changed just because the times change (some changes are not good), the traditions of the church have changed with the times. (After all, every tradition started as something novel.) It is only as the once mighty institution of the Orthodox Church has found itself increasingly operating at the margins of relevance that anxiety has fostered in many an allergy to any change whatsoever.
Fundamentalism is a response to a threat. There is a story from Vedic times in ancient India that illustrates this truth. A man asked a priest if it was acceptable to eat beef. The priest replied, “Only if it is tender.” The cow was a revered symbol of Hinduism in ancient times. It only became a sacred cow when the region was conquered by invading Muslim armies. (It is also at this time that the caste system became more rigid.) Threats create anxiety, and anxiety leads to the petrification of what were once more fluid cultural identifiers. As another example, in the Orthodox Church today, icons tend to look somewhat “medieval,” even if they were painted only recently. Ironically, one can find older icons that look more like the paintings of their times. The famous theologian and iconographer Leonid Ouspensky called such icons aberrations, but they were, in fact, the progression of holy art, which were arrested by anxieties about modernity. (Ouspensky also said there was no innovation in iconography, which is clearly and demonstrably false.)
But back to grapes. In some parishes, other fruits and vegetables are blessed along with grapes. This might be something that should be universally adopted, but only under the condition that the things one brings in to be blessed come from one’s own garden. This may help to re-establish the link between our labor, the earth, and our community, a link that tends to get lost in the markets of global capitalism. Thus I am proposing a kind of “lite” innovation that helps to strengthen what was intended in the blessing of the grapes itself.
Our liturgies are agrarian in context, and some aspects of agrarianism are important components of Christian identity and spiritual formation. Our connection to the earth was established in our original vocation in the Garden of Eden. We are “tillers” and “tenders” of the earth. When we dig in the soil with our own hands, we become more of the caretakers that we were in the beginning. Furthermore, we become better caretakers of the planet, which God intends us to be, rather than its abusers, which we more often are.
Buying from the store is a part of everyday life, but maybe it is not a part that should be blessed, at least not in its current form. God only knows where the grapes that were blessed this morning came from. God only knows if the calloused hands that harvested them belonged to a child who should otherwise have been in school. If nothing else, working with our own hands helps us to think about such things when we do shop at the store, and maybe it can help us to shop more responsibly—to shop more like Christians.
Global capitalism disconnects us from the earth and from each other. My children do not like to eat chicken roasted in the oven. They prefer their chicken boneless, skinless, and in a frozen plastic bag. They do not like to be reminded that what they eat was once alive. But perhaps they should be reminded of that as much as possible. Maybe if we reminded ourselves that we were eating things that once lived and scratched and pecked at the earth, we would take greater care when we do eat. Perhaps we would eat more like we would have in the harmony of Eden (minus the dead bird, of course). Such eating would bring us a little bit closer to the New Heaven and the New Earth of the Kingdom of God.
I have nothing against a global market, per se. “The market” is just a system for the distribution of resources. Trade across borders can be a good thing. In can enrich the lives of the exporters as well as those who purchase the goods. (I mean, olive oil!). But our global markets today have become omnipresent and omnipotent systems, justifying their dominance by nothing more than the tautological insistence that they must exist as they are. Global trade today often comes at the expense of local cultures and local flavors. Something holy is lost in this. The once innumerable varieties of seeds, adapted over generations to flourish in their local environments, form a polyphonous song of praise to the Creator God’s infinite glory. Now, field after field of Roundup Ready soybeans chant to scientific ingenuity in cold and lifeless monotone.
So I think we could stand to be a bit more deliberate in thinking about how the Feast of Transfiguration ties into the transfiguration of the earth in the harvest, and we need to be more deliberate in strengthening those ties. Or to put it differently, we should pay more attention to the ways modern life has severed so many of our once taken-for-granted ties to the church in the rhythms of daily life and the yearly agricultural cycle.
This has got me thinking that I need to recover the garden I once kept, to clear away the weeds, till the soil, and plan for the next growing season. My children need to learn, and in more than just a conceptual and abstract way, that food comes from the earth and sky and rains God has given us; they need to learn how food is transfigured by the power of God, joined to their own labor, into nourishment and life.
In light of the above, we might add another layer of meaning to the already packed symbolism of the blessing of grapes described in the first paragraph. If at the Feast of Transfiguration, we would bring the fruits and vegetables from our own backyard harvests, we might begin, in a small way, to transfigure the dominance of the global market itself, to make it more like the God who loves us and who died on a cross to save us from our own wayward arrogance and pride. In this way, our buying and selling might become more human, more humane, and more holy.
Actually they aren’t even talking about women. They’re talking about Greek. The GOA (Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America) made it about women when they opted to approve a revision of the creed from “for us and for our salvation” to “for us men and for our salvation.” The problem with this revision, the authors (Aristotle Papanikolaou and John Fotopoulos) is that it makes gender exclusive language that was originally gender inclusive. Greek, like many other languages, has gendered nouns. Anthropos is a masculine noun. But that does not mean that anthropos is male anymore than German a German girl is an “it” (das Mädchen is a neuter noun). Anthropos refers to humanity in general. Anér means “man.” Continue reading “Inclusive Language in the Liturgy”
A Facebook friend, Gregory Tillett, posted a story that I wanted to share. The following words are his and are posted with his permission. –David
I admit that I have a distinctly perverted sense of humour, but I was challenged to suppress it recently when I had to choose between hysterical laughter, or vomiting, or flying into a rage.
The young man was dying. He was connected to an array of medical devices, and being given every possible treatment (contrary to his very clear and explicit instructions) that might keep him barely alive for as long as possible.
His family, who clearly believed that his impending death was nothing to do with him, but entirely a matter for them, had finally resolved a massive conflict by bringing together a “non-denominational grief minister” who also described herself as a “death midwife” (his mother’s choice) and an Orthodox Priest (his father’s choice). Oh, and me! I was the choice of the young man’s girlfriend (expressed to her by him). Her role was, of course, problematic. They had been living together (“in sin”?) for four years or more, but were not married. So, as the young man’s parents repeatedly declared, she had no “rights”. Alas, he had also never prepared a Will or any enduring Powers of Attorney, so, legally, she was something of a “stranger”.
The “death midwife” rambled on about nothing in particular. The Orthodox Priest, in obviously grave discomfort and very much out of his depth, recited set prayers and talked about the serious dangers of dying without confession and absolution, and the probable risks of hell-fire and damnation. Someone, finally, suggested that I might offer a prayer, which I did, noting that the young man seemed to be smiling at me as I did so.
Thus the anticipatory mourners departed. While I was waiting for the others to depart, the girlfriend asked me if I would go back into the young man’s room.
As I bent over to listen to him, he said: “Do I have put up with all this crap?” It took me a while to understand what he was saying. When I assured him that he didn’t have to “put up with anything”, he said: “You know, the only thing that I really want is to have a beer and a cigarette with [he named his girlfriend] in the fresh air.” He seemed gratefully amused when I laughed. “I’ll see what I can do”, I said.
I found the oldest female nurse I could. Long experience has taught me that older women are almost always more sympathetic and more pastorally practical than men. I told her what the young man wanted. She remained completely silent. I asked her: “Would a beer and a cigarette in the fresh air make any difference to his condition?” Her expression did not change. “Wait here,” she said. It was not a request. She returned in a few minutes with a young doctor who turned out to be an oncologist, and, silently, ushered us both into an empty room and closed the door. She had obviously told the young doctor about my question. He assured me that the young man was close to death, and neither beer nor cigarettes, nor fresh air, could have the slightest effect on that. “But,” said the nurse (showing not the slightest emotion), “it would be completely against the rules and the law for alcohol or cigarettes to be brought into the hospital, let alone consumed here.”
I knew instinctively that I had to remain silent. She thanked the doctor and, giving me a knowing smile, he departed. “Perhaps,” the nurse said, “Mr X might like to sit for a brief time on the balcony where he could see the outside world and smell the fresh air. That can probably be arranged in, say, half an hour….in case there’s anything you need to do in the meanwhile.” She departed.
The girlfriend offered to “go shopping”, but obviously did not want to leave her partner. I suspect that the man in the nearby bottle shop was not accustomed to selling beer, cigarettes and a lighter to men in Priest’s robes, but he managed to be completely professional, even to asking: “Would you prefer a bag without our logo on it?”
Two older wardsmen appeared, and gently moved the young man in his bed out onto the balcony, supervised by the nurse. “You will obviously need privacy, Father” she said. “I’ll place a notice on the door so that no-one will come in without consulting me first.” She left.
The sun was shining, the air was fresh – well, a little polluted by cigarette smoke and the slight fragrance of beer. The young couple held hands, drank what was to be their last beer together, and smoked their last cigarette. I went back inside the room to leave them alone.
The nurse reappeared. “Have you finished hearing his Confession, Father?” she asked quite loudly, presumably for the benefit of any staff outside the room. The wardsmen returned and the room was returned to its normal order. As I was leaving, the young woman handed me the bag (with no logo) containing a few cans of beer and the pack of cigarettes. “You keep it,” I said. She looked at me with tears in her eyes: “For later, when….” she said. I bent down to say goodbye to the young man, and to bless him. It took me some time to understand what he was saying. “You do……pretty…cool….last rites…Father.” He smiled. And so did I.
Going down in the elevator, two young nurses were talking, obviously about the older nurse who had assisted me. “Hard-faced bitch,” one said. “Yeah,” said the other, “you couldn’t expect human feeling from her.” I smiled again. The older nurse not only did not practice her righteousness in front of others to be seen by them [Matthew 6:1], but carefully concealed it by giving the appearance of being hard-hearted. When, on another day, I attempted to thank her for her kindness, she seemed positively indignant: “I was only doing my job, Father.” A “job”, of course, which she did not define by the bureaucratic rules of the hospital, and which was largely possible because of the image of a tyrant she projected.
The young man died early the following morning.
I often have occasion to give thanks for the “parish” I have been given. My parishioners are those who have been thrown out of, forced out of, alienated from, relegated to second-class status in, or made to feel unwelcome in any conventional parish. They’re the people who may need “really cool Last Rites” involving beer and cigarettes, fresh air and sunshine, and the comforting hand of someone they love but with whom they are not in a “legitimate” relationship.
That right there— That is what it should mean to be the church. We are a people of second-class status, alienated and sinful, unwelcome, but made into a family—the body of Christ—to bring a little life into those spaces where death continues to reign, even if only for a few moments. –David
When an Orthodox Christian brings up the church’s teachings about sexuality…critics respond more to what they perceive to be the agenda of the author than the substance of the argument.
Ancient Faith’s “Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy” blog recently featured a guest post by Dr. Alfred Kentigern Siewers, responding to Giacomo Sanfilippo’s recent article on Conjugal Friendship in Public Orthodoxy. Sanfilippo deserves praise for broaching a topic that puts a bullseye on his back, and Siewers deserves praise for his thoughtful and measured response. These two articles, together, exemplify a spirit of dialog over an issue that needs to be fully and reasonably considered, but which often generates more heat than light. That said, Siewers seems to be countering a set of arguments that Sanfilippo simply does not make. Continue reading “Further thoughts on Conjugal Friendship: A Response to Siewers”